Compare it with the Utilitarian grounding principle of maximizing good. When morality sets the goal and means here, we term their culmination “moral exemplarism.”. After viewing product detail pages, look here to find an easy way to navigate back to pages you are interested in. Prices are hidden. He sets his subject in the context of strife-torn China, since Confucius was a radical reformer whose ideas had political applications. If we truly took that perspective, we would not have to empathize. “You keep taking advantage of me: that was abusive. The mere logic or golden principle of the thing is silent on them. 5 Reseñas. But consider what has happened to its scientific mentor. But it neither addresses the wrong being committed, nor that part of the perpetrator to be faulted and held accountable. Wishing typically has higher goals and lower expectations than wanting; it’s bigger on imagination, weaker on real-world motivation. It doesn’t matter. Just as with acting as we’d have others act toward us, loving thy neighbor concerns how we’re supposed to love others, as we should love ourselves. Read more Read less "Santa's Story" by Will Hillenbrand But for those who use its ethic to rise above good and evil in a mundane sense, the golden rule is a wisdom principle. To the master, it is daily life and interaction: “I eat when I am hungry, I sleep when I am tired.”. And if we do not have our self-identified interests taken seriously, we feel that we are not taken seriously, whether we ideally should or not. Conducting Ethical Research in Cyberspace.”, Firth, Roderick  (1952 ). A most remarkable work. This is the indirect pursuit of the golden rule that focuses on ideally good means to ideally good ends. This built newly generalized principles into the very structure of maximization (maximize the regard for rights as inherent and inviolable), turning the pre-existing utilitarian principle (regarding rights and all else as means to social good) into a super-principle, as some term it. A true self-understanding (zhi xing "ft) or a full. Retrouvez Confucius: The Golden Rule et des millions de livres en stock sur That is that one of the central ideas of Confucianism, which can teach men to … And five centuries before Christ, Confucius set forth his own Golden Rule: "Do not impose on others what you do not wish for yourself." Philosophy’s two prominent analyses of the golden rule are credited, along with the prospects for assimilating such a rule of thumb, to a universal principle in general theory. In any event, ethics is not built for such concerns. CONFUCIUS: THE GOLDEN RULE written by Russell Freedman is the biographical picture book about Kong Qiu or Confucius. The book is more about Confucius' life than his wisdom. 1HR 29MIN. 2, 3:13) sees the golden rule as implanted into our reason by God, answers Sharrock's objections, defends the golden rule by the idea that we ought to hold everyone equal to ourselves, and gives golden-rule quotes from various sources (including Hobbes, Aristotle, Seneca, Confucius, and the Peruvian Manco Cápac). And, of like importance, background frameworks would be provided for how to practice the rule, indicating the difference in orientation of the novice and expert user. He was a sage, philosopher and teacher who, with Socrates and Buddha, lived at an extraordinary time in the evolution of human civilization. It recommends the rule as a unique standard for international understanding and cooperation—noble aims, much-lauded by supporters. For the golden rule to have become so pervasive across historical epochs and cultures suggests a growing suspicion of class and ethnic distinctions—challenging ethnocentrism. And this does not include treating them as Jews. Any community member can comply simply by knowing which reciprocity practices are approved or frowned on. More, Confucius himself made the golden rule an unrivaled centerpiece of his philosophy of life (The Analects, 1962). And in this form there is no question that its shortfalls are many. item 2 CONFUCIUS: GOLDEN RULE By Russell Freedman **BRAND NEW** 2 - CONFUCIUS: GOLDEN RULE By Russell Freedman **BRAND NEW** $20.95. Generosity meant hospitality to the stranger or alien as well, remembering that the Jews were once strangers in a strange land. We arguably cannot be perfect as our Father in Heaven is perfect (or complete). “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” is the idea (also called the law of reciprocity) that may be the most universally applauded moral principle on Earth—the Golden Rule. They prime us to take certain sorts of postures, showing a readiness to cooperate or to ask others if we are being a pest, though we may not succeed even if we try. The whole process is typically done by oneself, within one’s self-perspective or ego, and it can be spun as one wishes, no checks involved. Teachings that abstract the rule from its implicit corollaries and situational expectations fail to capture what the rule even says. Likely not. 11).This syndrome of experiences and proclivities gives new meaning for its “patients” to what a devoted and dedicated life can be—not devotion to religious duties or divine commands, but the spontaneous embodiment of omnipresent love.. Mystical experience of this sort typically bridges the complete separation between perfect Godhood and sinful devotee, substituting a sense of oneness and “flow” within a cosmic ocean of bliss.  Are they friend, stranger, or opponent? More, in any relevant context, the golden rule urges to think before we act, then imagine how we would feel, not how the other would. He notes, likewise, an overflowing urge to love, give and aid others, nurture and support unlimited others, with unlimited energy, and no sense of sacrifice to oneself. Kant’s “neumonal self” (composed of reason and free will) and the Bentham-Mill “Util-carrier” (an experience processor for pleasure and pain) are not the selves or others we care about when golden-ruling. When dealing with cases of unfairness and abuse, critics assume the golden rule requires us to “take the pain” uncomplainingly. Wishing forgiveness, or at least to be given a second chance, has much to be said for it. None of these may auger a glad feeling, though one would hope they do, hoping also that one’s choices turn out well and that their consequences please us, which they often, sadly, do not. It was a source of cultural status quoism—to each social station, its proper portion. This is difficult at best, and not clearly a reliable way to maximizing good. The Confucian Golden Rule 3 1 7 written by Confucius himself, while the other maintains that he was the author of the Spring and Autumn Annals , the commentator of the Book of Changes , the re-former of the Rites (and the Music), and the editor of the Book of History and the Book of Odes. Indeed, feminist psychologists demonstrate this inadequacy empirically in psychological males, especially where it involves empathy or spontaneously “feeling with” others. One minus: it is very hard to remove the sticker of the public library, so it looks like I've stolen it ;-), Reviewed in the United Kingdom on September 2, 2015,  内容そのものは、ありふれた子供向けの「偉人伝」なのですが、ですが!!. Here we engage in repetitive behaviors that conform to a reciprocity convention that conforms to the rule. Instead, the golden rule and its related rationales-of-scale may need more piecemeal analyses, perhaps know-how models of theory, integrating algorithms and problem-solving procedures that preserve the specialized roles and scope. Newbery Medal winner Freedman (Lincoln: A Photobiography) delves deep into Chinese history in his intelligent, comprehensive biography of the 5th-century B.C. Gandhi characterizes personal integrity as “living life as an open book” since one’s life is not one’s own, but merely one example of everyone’s life. Granted, adherents of these ideals place the achievement of spiritual insight out of common hands. Consequently, the faults in golden-rule thinking, as represented in general principles, may say less about inherent flaws in the rule’s logic than about shortfalls in theory building. Both of these alternatives have horrible consequences for the golden rule however.  Rights simply do not cover enough ethical behavior to rule out forms of psychological cruelty, callousness, and interpersonal exclusion. I could have been anyone, any of them, as they could have been me. And so shortfalls found in taking it out of its cultural context—ignoring the range of practices and roles that it presumed, placing it in types of social context that didn’t exist when it was born and raised should be no surprise. We’re often not occupied when called upon to respond to others, so that responding lushly is easy—there is no hefty competition for our time or interest. This is because it does not direct a specific type of action that can be morally evaluated in itself. And by exposing the rule’s shortfall and flaws, we can identify the precise sorts of added components or remedies needed to complement it, thus setting back on the right path. A plausible rendering of the golden rule, making its implicit concern for interests more visible would go, `Treat others the way you would be interested in being treated, making adjustments for their differing interests.’ In these terms, unconditional loving is a bad fit. The approach is notably uninfluenced by the golden rule’s 2,500 year history. A proper explanatory principle will allow us to derive such corollaries from its core rationale. (Selman 1980). One’s true peers were identified only within one’s class, gender, or occupation, as well as one’s extended family members. One reason philosophers emphasize the juxtaposition of ethics and human nature stems from the moralistic, if not masochistic cast of ethical traditions. The positive or directive form of the Golden Rule: “One should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself.”. Similar problems of interpretation rise for the “as” in the related principle, love thy neighbor as thyself (Matthew 20:34).  In ethical philosophy, as noted, “self-love” has been identified traditionally with self-interest or self-preference. Whether they are (should be) a certain way isn’t the point. The fault here is not emphasizing rational components, but failing to integrate additional components into it adequately. Moral suspicion of medieval shira laws in Islam is another. But this already is a consequence of applying the rule, not a way of applying it. (Applied ethics already boasts hundreds of decision-making step procedures.) The work takes over and one becomes “possessed” by it, either in an uplifting way, or as in the need for exorcism, rehab, or at least “intervention” by friends and family. The rule is simply too idealistic; that is its established reputation. It was designed to serve them, both as an uplifting inspiration and form of edification, raising their moral consciousness. Here is where the rule most contrasts with our typical, pre-moral reaction, while also rising above (Old Testament) justice. In traditional culture, the “others” in “do unto others” was interpreted as “relevant others,” which made the rule much easier to follow, if far less egalitarian or inspiring. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. It can only be understood correctly through direct insight and experience. But they are prescriptive only in the logical sense of distinguishing “shoulds” from “woulds” or “ares,” not the directive sense—do X in way Y. Singer’s take exposes the how-to or know-how of the golden rule. We could indeed be faulted for ignoring others as persons, treating them like potted plants in the room, but that would only result if they craved our notice, attention, or participation. This is less egoism than a sense of distinctness and uniqueness within the additional expectations of realized relationship. But philosophers have given hardly a thought to the real prospect that there may be no such things—no real phenomena to cover our grab-bag folk terms. Culturally, the golden rule rationale is mostly confined to certain strands of the Judeo-Christian and Chinese traditions, which are broad and lasting, at least until recently, but hardly universal (See Wattles 1966). Answer to: What is the definition of Confucius' golden rule? Where the ethics or ethos of a society is barbaric, and its hierarchies authoritarian, taking perspectives within roles legitimates these characteristics. Gr. Just as Confucius "prodded [his students] to think in new ways," it will open new doors for young readers. In the current case we can readily respond to our oppressor by calling a spade a spade—“You took advantage of me, I noticed.” That would be a first response. Whose teachings of moral, social, political and philosophical behaviors in theory later became a foundation called Confucianism. "Do not impose on others what you do not wish for yourself." With an enlightening Author's Note, and informative sources and suggestions for further reading included at the end, Confucius: The Golden Rule is an entertaining and inspiring introductory biography that is sure to whet the appetite of kids 10 and older, and send them out looking for more. Confucius died around 478 BC from natural causes and was buried at the Kong Lin cemetery which lies in the historical part of Qufu. Still, the rule is sometimes consciously referred to as a reminder. “Jesus of Nazareth” (television mini-series). Non-Fiction "Do not impose on others what you do not wish for yourself." This was one of the guiding principles of life that Confucius taught his followers, five centuries before Jesus taught the Golden Rule with similar words. This could render like interest in others as other-love. Virtue theorists seem unparsed as they experience a philosophical upswing. This includes, for observers in the community, the superiority of fairness over retribution (“’Vengeance is mine,’ sayeth the Lord.”)  Teaching this lesson is aimed at raising moral consciousness, especially in the perpetrator. Adhering specifically to the golden rule’s guidelines, then, raises no special difficulty. For example, when a disciple asked him for a guiding principle for all conduct, Confucius answered: “Is not mutual goodwill such a principle? Putting the matter more generally, human motivational systems come individually packaged. A behavioral route can be taken instead to these simulations, side-stepping direct reference to the rule. The same can be said with identifying, role-taking or learning from another’s type of experience. Noté /5. The social convention of avoiding those who hurt us also must figure into the rule’s understanding. To calculate the overall star rating and percentage breakdown by star, we don’t use a simple average. This is not the most morally reassuring depiction of the golden rule as a phenomenon, but so it goes. The same is true for self-regard. But we would not continue to carry around a sense of ethical assembly instructions or recipes needing sometimes to refer to them directly—if we were ethics, if we embodied ethics. Esther Nicol–Grade 6. 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